Distillation Image

Outcome of This Section:


Understand the principles of mass transfer

  1. Explain Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) & phase diagram, relative volatility, Raoult's Law and Ideal Solutions and Azeotropic mixtures (maximum and minimum boiling)
  2. Obtain VLE data from vapour pressure measurements
  3. Plot the phase diagram and equilibrium curve using VLE data
  4. Analyse, interpret, and evaluate VLE data for separability, existence of azeotropic behaviour
  5. Understand the phase rule and the constraints on separation processes

Understand and apply the principles and methods for simple distillation of binary mixtures

  1. Explain the principles and apparatus used in simple distillation
  2. Analyse the concentration & temperature changes with time
  3. Derive Rayleigh Equation for simple distillation
  4. Use graphical method to solve Rayleigh Equation
  5. Evaluate trade-off between quantity and quality (concentration)

Understand and apply the principles and methods for flash distillation of binary mixtures

  1. Explain the principles and equipment used in flash distillation
  2. Derive operating line equation for flash distillation
  3. Use graphical method to solve flash distillation problems
  4. Analyse & predict effect of different feed conditions on separation

Understand the principles of continuous distillation of binary mixtures and equipment used

  1. Explain the functions of different equipment used
  2. Compare and contrast different types of trays and their characteristics
  3. Explain types of packings & other internals & their functions
  4. Compare and contrast differences between packed and tray columns
  5. Evaluate conditions favouring packed and tray columns
  6. Understand mass transfer between liquid phase and vapour phase and the importance of reflux ratio

Understand and apply McCabe-Thiele Method for continuous distillation column design

  1. Understand McCabe-Thiele Design Method for obtaining number of theoretical trays by graphical method and its assumptions
  2. Use mass balance to obtain operating line equations for rectifying and stripping sections; and the feed line (q-line) equation
  3. Evaluate the effect of different feed conditions entering the column on vapour-liquid loading in column
  4. Explain the use of enthalpy-concentration diagram
  5. Understand the trade-off between reflux ratio and number of trays
  6. Analyse the significance of minimum reflux ratio and total reflux on the design process (in terms of separation efficiency)
  7. Explain the determination of economic (optimum) reflux ratio
  8. Perform continuous distillation calculations using McCabe-Thiele Method
  9. Interpret the design (in terms of separation efficiency) vis--vis the basic concepts
  10. Evaluate different design scenarios

Understand and apply the principles and methods for batch distillation of binary mixtures

  1. Explain the principles and equipment used in batch distillation
  2. Use mass balance to obtain operating line equation
  3. Compare and contrast batch and continuous distillation and identify conditions favouring batch distillation
  4. Analyse and compare operation at constant product composition or constant reflux ratio
  5. Use graphical method to solve batch distillation problems

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