**Outcome
of This Section:**

Understand the principles of mass transfer

- Explain Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) & phase diagram, relative volatility, Raoult's Law and Ideal Solutions and Azeotropic mixtures (maximum and minimum boiling)
- Obtain VLE data from vapour pressure measurements
- Plot the phase diagram and equilibrium curve using VLE data
- Analyse, interpret, and evaluate VLE data for separability, existence of azeotropic behaviour
- Understand the phase rule and the constraints on separation processes

Understand and apply the principles and methods for simple distillation of binary mixtures

- Explain the principles and apparatus used in simple distillation
- Analyse the concentration & temperature changes with time
- Derive Rayleigh Equation for simple distillation
- Use graphical method to solve Rayleigh Equation
- Evaluate trade-off between quantity and quality (concentration)

Understand and apply the principles and methods for flash distillation of binary mixtures

- Explain the principles and equipment used in flash distillation
- Derive operating line equation for flash distillation
- Use graphical method to solve flash distillation problems
- Analyse & predict effect of different feed conditions on separation

Understand the principles of continuous distillation of binary mixtures and equipment used

- Explain the functions of different equipment used
- Compare and contrast different types of trays and their characteristics
- Explain types of packings & other internals & their functions
- Compare and contrast differences between packed and tray columns
- Evaluate conditions favouring packed and tray columns
- Understand mass transfer between liquid phase and vapour phase and the importance of reflux ratio

Understand and apply McCabe-Thiele Method for continuous distillation column design

- Understand McCabe-Thiele Design Method for obtaining number of theoretical trays by graphical method and its assumptions
- Use mass balance to obtain operating line equations for rectifying and stripping sections; and the feed line (q-line) equation
- Evaluate the effect of different feed conditions entering the column on vapour-liquid loading in column
- Explain the use of enthalpy-concentration diagram
- Understand the trade-off between reflux ratio and number of trays
- Analyse the significance of minimum reflux ratio and total reflux on the design process (in terms of separation efficiency)
- Explain the determination of economic (optimum) reflux ratio
- Perform continuous distillation calculations using McCabe-Thiele Method
- Interpret the design (in terms of separation efficiency) vis-à-vis the basic concepts
- Evaluate different design scenarios

Understand and apply the principles and methods for batch distillation of binary mixtures

- Explain the principles and equipment used in batch distillation
- Use mass balance to obtain operating line equation
- Compare and contrast batch and continuous distillation and identify conditions favouring batch distillation
- Analyse and compare operation at constant product composition or constant reflux ratio
- Use graphical method to solve batch distillation problems